RGB Colorspace Atlas

RGB Colorspace Atlas

American artist tauba auerbach presents the 8 x 8 x 8-inch hard-back cubes illustrating the colour spectrum through digital offset print in a page-by-page medium. A digital offset print on paper with airbrushed cloth cover and book edges create a colourful reference volume of all the colours in existence.

RGB Colorspace Atlas
Digital offset print on paper, case bound book, airbrushed cloth cover and page edges
8 x 8 x 8 inches each
20.3 x 20.3 x 20.3 cm. Binding co-designed by Daniel E. Kelm and Tauba Auerbach. The books were bound by Daniel E. Kelm assisted by Leah Hughes at the Wide Awake Garage







Fabric testing

Open Colleges – SP6 – module2 – progress 3

Fabric testing

  • Research the following fabric tests (Martindale and Stoll).
  • Write one paragraph to explain how each test is carried out
  • Reference your research according to the Student Handbook.

The Martindale and Stoll methods are both tests which assess the performance of fabrics in relation to abrasion resistance. Abrasion resistance is the ability of a fabric to withstand surface wear due to rubbing.

The test method used for measuring abrasion resistance for non-pile, woven and knitted upholstery fabrics is the Martindale test. In Martindale abrasion resistance tester (Fig.1), circular specimens are abraded under known pressure against a standard fabric. Abrasion resistance is measured by subjecting the specimen to rubbing motion in the form of a geometric figure.

The test method for assessing appearance change of pile fabrics such as velvet, velveteen, corduroy, knitted velour, knitted pile and flock fabrics is the Stoll test. The Stoll Test (Fig.2) involves the erratic movement of a small pad over the fabric surface mounted on a frame, this is also done under pressure to simulate the wear of normal use.

The results of these tests allow the fabrics to be classified between different categories established by the commercial textile association of Australia and New Zealand performance guidelines.








Colour and cultural design considerations


The world seems to be getting a little smaller each day thanks to online communities and social networking. In turn, this “world-wide community” has created an international readership for a variety of websites.

Designers must weigh carefully the messages they send to that potentially broad user-base.

One aspect of design that can have far reaching and sometimes unintentional effects on readers is colour. Colours have a variety of associations within North American culture alone, and can mean something radically different to Japanese or Middle Eastern readers, where colour meanings are frequently much more specific and defined.

It is important to understand how colour associations vary from culture to culture, and within different possible audiences, when planning a website.

Understanding colour can be a tricky challenge and many colour meanings can almost seem contradictory — particularly in the West, where colour meanings are extremely broad. When working with colour, remember to think about context and how colour is used with other elements such as text and photos.

Here we’ll look at a rainbow of basic hues and what meanings people of different cultures may infer from them.






Western cultures (North America and Europe) Red is the colour of passion and excitement. It has both positive and negative associations — danger, love and excitement and when used with connection with the former Eastern bloc, it represents communism. Red is also associated with power and has some religious undertones when used with green to represent Christmas. The multiple, and varying, Western associations with the colour are a combination of different meanings from other cultures.

Eastern and Asian cultures Red is the colour of happiness, joy and celebration. It is often the colour worn by brides on their wedding day because it is thought to bring luck, long life and happiness. It is also a colour often associated with Chinese restaurants in the United States, because of the associations with luck and happiness. Specifically in India, the colour relates to purity and in Japan it is associated with life, but also anger or danger.

Latin America In Mexico and some other Latin American nations, red is the colour of religion when used with white.

Middle East Red evokes feelings of danger and caution. Some also consider it the colour of evil.

Around the world Red is worn to celebrate the Chinese New Year to bring luck, good fortune and prosperity.




Western cultures (North American and Europe) Orange is the colour of harvest and autumn. In the United States, for example, the colour signifies the fall season beginning in September with the start of school though to Halloween and Thanksgiving in late November. It is also associated with warmth and citrus fruits. In The Netherlands, where it is considered the national colour, the most common use of orange is to signify royalty.

Eastern and Asian cultures The hue, especially saffron (a yellowish orange that matches the colour of the plant) is sacred in Indian cultures. In Japan, orange tones are symbolic of courage and love.

Latin America Orange is considered sunny; it is also associated with the earth in some countries because of the reddish-orange ground colour.

Middle East Orange is associated with mourning and loss.

Around the world The colour can also have religious associations: It is the colour of gluttony in Christianity.




Western cultures (North America and Europe) The bright cheery nature of yellow is the predominant meaning in most Western nations. It is associated with warmth (the sun), summer and hospitality. In the United States, specifically, the colour is associated with transportation — taxis and school buses are yellow as are many different types of street signage. Tea maker Lipton, for example, uses yellow to market worldwide but there are changes in what colours people are wearing in advertising material if you toggle between sites aimed at different countries. In Germany, yellow is associated with envy (which is described as green in most other Western cultures).

Eastern and Asian cultures Members of the royal ruling class often wear this hue and the colour is considered sacred and imperial. In Japan, that definition is expanded to include courage (which is expected of rulers) and is the colour of commerce in India.

Latin America On the contrary, yellow is associated with death and mourning in many Latin cultures.

Middle East Though in Egypt, yellow is most closely associated with mourning (in much the same way as Latin American nations), it is more widely connected to happiness and prosperity in the Middle East. The associations with yellow are closely related to those of Western cultures.

Around the world In many African nations, only people with high rank in society can wear yellow. The more gold variations of the colour are universally associated with money, quality and success in most world cultures.




Western cultures (North America and Europe) The most popular colour for bank logos is blue because it represents trust and authority. The colour is also masculine and used to represent the birth of a boy. Blue is also considered to be calming, soothing and peaceful although it can also be associated with depression or sadness.

Eastern and Asian cultures The hue is ever-lasting in its association with immortality. In Indian culture blue is the colour of Krishna — a central figure in Hinduism and one of the most popular Hindu gods. Many Indian sports teams use the colour as a symbol of strength. Unlike in the U.S., where blue is associated with men, it is considered a feminine colour in China.

Latin America Because of the high Catholic population of Central and South America, blue is often associated with religion as the colour of the Virgin Mary’s robe or headscarf. Moreover, blue can cause an emotional stir because of its association with mourning. It is also the colour of trust and serenity in Mexico, and is the colour of soap in Colombia.

Middle East Blue is safe and protecting. It is the colour associated with Heaven, spirituality and immortality.

Around the world In Thailand, blue is the colour associated with Friday. Blue is often considered the most positive and safest colour for a global audience. Skype, the international web-based telephone company, uses a blue colour scheme for each of its sites around the world.




Western cultures (North America and Europe) Green is the colour of the Irish (think St. Patrick’s Day and it is also the national colour of Ireland) and represents luck throughout most of the West. Green also refers to nature, the environment and protection of environmental causes, such as “green business” or “green household cleansers.” Green is also associated with Christmas, when used in combination with red. It is also the symbol of progress — green means “go” — but can also represent of envy.

Eastern and Asian cultures Green is the colour of nature and new life in much of the East. It also represents fertility and youth. However, it can have equally negative connotations: green is the colour of exorcism and infidelity; in China, wearing a green hat is associated with cheating on your spouse.

Latin America In many Latin and South American cultures, green is the colour of death.

Middle East For the majority of the Middle East the strongest association with green is that of Islam. It represents strength, fertility, luck and wealth.

Around the world In the United States, green is the colour of money and is often associated with jealousy. Green, superficially olive green, is the colour of almost every active military in the world.




Western cultures (North America and Europe) Purple is the colour of royalty and is often used for the cloaks and robes of kings and queens in modern movies. It is associated with wealth and fame. It is also symbolic of modernism and progression. Specifically in the United States, it is a colour of honour; the military’s highest award is considered to be the Purple Heart.

Eastern and Asian cultures Purple is also a colour of wealth and nobility in the East. The exception is in Thailand, where purple represents mourning, where a widow wears the colour after the death of her husband.

Latin America The theme of sorrow is also evident in South American nations such as Brazil, where purple is associated with mourning and death.

Middle East Wealth and purple are synonymous. In Egypt, the definition of purple also extends to include virtue.

Around the world A lighter shade, amethyst, is considered sacred to Buddha and rosaries are often made from this purple stone in Tibet.




Western cultures (North American and Europe) Pink is the colour of femininity and is used to signify the birth of a daughter. It also represents sweetness (it is often the colour used for cake or candy shops), childhood or fun.

Eastern and Asian cultures Pink is also considered feminine in the East where it also signifies marriage. In Korea, however, the colour is more closely associated with trust. For many years, the Chinese did not recognize the colour; it was finally brought into the culture due to increasing Western influence.

Latin America Pink has much looser associations and is often used as a colour for buildings, consequently it can have associations with architecture.

Middle East Pink does not have any distinct meaning in Middle Eastern cultures.

Around the world Prison holding cells around the world have been painted pink to help reduce behavioural problems because the colour can be mentally stimulating whilst simultaneously being somewhat calming.





Western cultures (North America and Europe) Brown is earthy but can be associated with either health or barrenness. In the United States, it is the colour most often used for packaging (think of the highly successful transport company UPS) and food containers. Brown is stable, dependable and wholesome, as association which comes from the colour of grains.

Eastern and Asian cultures The most common colour association is that of mourning. In Chinese horoscopes, brown is used to represent earth.

Latin America Contrary to the uses of brown in North America, the colour has the opposite effect in South America. Brown actually discourages sales in Colombia and is considered disapproving in Nicaragua.

Middle East Brown is harmonious with earth and comfort.

Around the world The meanings associated with brown may be among the most universal in the rainbow; it is frequently called a non-colour because of its neutral tendencies and general appeal in design. Note how brown is used on the Washtennaw Community College website – the neutral colour is inviting to potential students of almost any origin.




Western cultures (North America and Europe) Black is the colour of finality, death, formality and mourning in North American and European cultures. It is also considered powerful and strong and can imply control or force. (Consider the strong look associated with using reverse type.)

Eastern and Asian cultures Black can be connected to masculinity and is the colour for boys in China. It also represents wealth, heath and prosperity. In Thailand and Tibet though, black is most closely associated with evil.

Latin America Latin cultures also associate the colour (or strictly speaking, tone) with masculinity and is the preferred colour for men’s clothing. It is also linked to mourning.

Middle East Black has somewhat contrasting but symbiotic meanings – it represents both rebirth and mourning. Evil and mystery are also associated with black.

Around the world Black is associated with magic and the unknown in almost all cultures.




Western cultures (North America and Europe) White is the colour of purity and peace. It is often associated with weddings and is the colour most often worn by brides. White is also clean and sterile and used to represent hospitals and even holiness. In Italy however, white is used for funerals and traditionally, white Chrysanthemums are placed at grave sites.

Eastern and Asian cultures White is also the colour of death in the East. It is used at funerals and represents sterility, mourning, unhappiness and misfortune.

Latin America White has many of the same associations as in North America and is connected to purity and peace.

Middle East Both purity and mourning are associated with white. In Iran for example, that definition expands to include holiness and peace and in Egypt wearing white is a symbol of a person’s high ranking status.

Around the world The white flag is the universal symbol of truce.

Arcticle by by Carrie Cousins








Visual communication

Most professional interior design projects involve study, review, and refinement of interior architectural finishes and materials, as well as furnishings, fixtures, and equipment. Finish materials, furnishings, and fixtures must be studied individually and also be viewed as parts of a whole.

A formal materials presentation is not of particular importance to the individual designer as an aid in the design process. It is most common for designers to gather a variety of samples and make preliminary decisions without pinning anything down. Most designers can work from large samples kept loose (unmounted) while in the preliminary stages of a design.

Keeping things loose also allows the client to understand clearly the preliminary nature of the selection and imparts a sense that there is plenty of room for decision making.

 18 material samples 0118 material samples

It is necessary to create formal presentations for clients, end users, or investors only when selections have been determined or narrowed down.

As a project moves forward, it is important that materials presentations clearly reflect the given stages of the design. Many designers create a materials presentation as part of the final visual presentation, which takes place at the end of design development phase of a project.

Clearly there is variation in the manner in which finalized selections of materials, furnishings, and finishes are presented to clients. Many designers pride themselves on consistent, well-crafted materials presentations, whereas others prefer to keep samples loose and informal.

Inspiration board, mood board, material board,… can be done traditionally or digitally. Here are two examples of a material and finish presentation board done both ways in relation to the same project:

18 traditional board by Taylor McCammon Houston, Texas.

18 digital board by Taylor McCammon Houston, Texas.

Material and finish presentation boards by Taylor McCammon

Traditional board

Most materials presentations for a traditional physical board require sturdy backing materials, most often a type of paperboard. Foam board is often used in such presentations because it is sturdy yet lightweight and easy to work with. Samples, titles, and notes can be applied directly to the top paper surface of the foam core.

18 material samples 05

Interior Design Portfolio Website for Annie Geitner | Wix.

18 material samples 04

San Diego Rendering and Materials Board – Interior Design Photos

18 granger_mood_board

Mood board by Jane Lockhart

Digital board

Designers now often rely on digital technology when preparing materials presentations. Digital cameras and scanners are used to capture materials samples and product imagery. And many materials and furnishing suppliers and manufacturers put digital images online so designer can download them.

These virtual samples presentation lack the textural quality provided by true finish materials, but they are useful for setting a conceptual direction.

Notes: use only high resolution (300dpi) images in digital presentations.

18 cdi-inspiration-board-sterling-sliver. 18 cdi-inspiration-board-lighthouse.

Inspiration board by Corporate Design Interiors

Developing a presentation 

A key skill for the designer is the ability to develop an appealing and successful presentation that translates the ideas and processes that led to specific design decisions. Creating a narrative, outlining and storyboarding the presentation, and determining the appropriate medium for the content are but a few of the interior designer’s tasks.

The designer must also grasp how drawings-used as graphic elements-function within different types of presentations, and how the principles of graphic design can influence the presentation.

Design boards set up a sequential and ordered structure in which the intent of the proposal is illustrated. For boards to succeed, the principles of storyboarding must be applied to the information being presented; this entails the hierarchy of the elements on the board itself and the sequence in which the narrative unfolds. Design boards allow the client to spend as much time with the work as possible, and thus elements should be paced to allow for further discovery the longer they are examined. Numerous issues need to be considered when designing presentation boards.

Number of Boards: In determining the number of boards in a presentation, several questions must be asked: What is the size of the project? How many drawings will be needed to adequately describe the project? Are there going to be perspectives? Will samples be attached directly to the board or scanned and added to a perspective?

  • Narrative Development and Outlining: Developing a narrative for the presentation means, essentially, telling the story of the design process. A well-conceived narrative structures what and when to include in the presentation. Narratives provide a framework that can allocate emphasis and importance to certain aspects of the process. Maintaining an outline of the design intent, and developing it as the project itself evolves, will focus the narrative.
  • Spacing, Scale, and Speed: When developing the layout for a presentation, it is important to consider how the boards will be viewed. Some viewers will quickly scan the boards, and others will pause to look at the work in depth. By anticipating this, layout strategies regarding the spacing and scale of objects can begin to address the speed at which they are examined.
  • Orientation: Boards arranged with their length in the vertical dimension are said to be in portrait format and those with a width longer than height are referred to as landscape. Each has its benefits:
    • Portrait oriented boards have a visual resonance with the printed page, and when displayed in sequence, allow for more information in less horizontal space.
    • Landscape-oriented boards enable a more natural cropping of views for perspectives, and their width encourages a more relaxed sequencing.
  • White Space: The surrounding white space can be used to increase the relative importance of any drawing, sample, or text on the page. Designers should avoid overcomplicating the layout of the presentation by crowding too few boards with too much information. Adding another board is always an option.
  • Storyboarding and Thumbnails: A useful method for developing the presentation is to create several variations as mock-ups. These mock-ups gather the information to be presented and then explore several sequencing strategies. Labelling and Annotation: Often overlooked, one of the most important factors in determining how a layout is perceived is the choice of fonts that will translate the designer’s text. Clear, legible type, used at varying type sizes, can add another layer to how a board is read; it also offers another graphic element for the design of the board. Establishing a good hierarchy of fonts early in the process allows annotations to be placed in relation to the graphics in precise ways. At the very least, decisions should be made with regard to the following label types in a document: title font, label font, and caption font.

Grid Development & Layout Strategies

To establish the structure and placement of objects on a presentation board, the designer must develop a template that provides rules in the form of grids. Grids, set up correctly, can clarify the distribution of the design elements. If uncertain where to start, interior designers can draw from the world of the graphic arts, from which the following examples come, to fashion their own grid systems. 18 layout strategies

18 grid development

I hope you found this helpful. The main point is to be purposeful and consistent with your layout and image choices and to make sure each image or item helps the story and doesn’t take away from it.

Tips for Making Mood Boards, with Nathan Turner | Pottery Barn



Interior Design Visual Presentation, second and fourth edition, by Maureen Mitton.

COLOR, SPACE, STYLE, © 2007 by Rockport Publishers, Inc.